Tuesday, 8 August 2017

હવે અમેરિકી જીપીએસ પર આધાર નહિ રાખવો પડે


દેશના મહત્ત્વના અને ચાવીરૃપ ક્ષેત્રોને હવે અમેરિકી જીપીએસ સિસ્ટમ પર આધાર રાખવો નહિ પડે. ભારતે ઇસરો દ્વારા ઘરઆંગણે વિકસાવેલી 'એનએવીઆઇસી' (નાવિક) સેટેલાઇટ નેવિગેશન સિસ્ટમ હવે નેશનલ ફિઝીકલ લેબોરેટરીની એટમિક ક્લોક સાથે જોડાઈને સ્વતંત્ર રીતે કામ કરશે.

ઇસરોએ નેશનલ ફિઝિકલ લેબોરેટરી સાથે એમઓયુ કરીને તેની એટમિક ક્લોક સાથે જોડવાના કરાર કર્યા હતા. નેશનલ ફિઝિકલ લેબોરેટરી આઝાદી પૂર્વેની સંસ્થા અને ઇન્ડિયન સ્ટાન્ડર્ડ ટાઇમની જાળવણી કરે છે. તેની સ્વંતત્ર એટમિક ક્લોક આ ટમિક ક્લોક ઇન્ટરનેશનલ બ્યુરો ઓફ વેઇટસ એન્ડ મેજર ફ્રાન્સ સાથે કરારબદ્ધ છે.

વિશ્વમાં ૪૦૦ એટમિક ક્લોક છે ભારતમાં ૪થી પાંચ એર ક્લોક છે જે ચોકસાઈપૂર્વક સમયની ગણતરી કરે છે. આઉટર કક્ષાની ઘડિયાળનો ઇસરોને લાભ મળશે અને ભારતની નાવિક સિસ્ટમ અમેરિકાની જીપીએસ સામે ટક્કર લેશે.
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એમ.વેંકૈયા નાયડુ દેશના ૧૫માં ઉપરાષ્ટ્રપતિ ...


S. Aparna appointed Executive Director, World Bank


7th August:

S. Aparna, an IAS officer from Gujarat cadre has been appointed as Executive Director, World Bank to represent the constituency of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka for three years.

A 1988-batch IAS, she is currently Principal Secretary to Gujarat Chief Minister Vijay Rupani. At the World Bank, she will replace Subhash Garg, who was recently appointed Economic Affairs Secretary, Ministry of Finance.

At the World Bank, she will represent the constituency of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka for three years. She will replace Subhash Garg, who was recently appointed Economic Affairs Secretary, Union Ministry of Finance.

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital programs. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group.


7th August - National Handloom Day



The Prime Minister described ‘Khadi for Nation, Khadi for Fashion’ as one of the principles that could serve as a guide for the people.

The Union Government had declared 7 August as the National Handloom Day in July 2015 with the objective to generate awareness about importance of India’s handloom industry.


The first National Handloom Day was inaugurated on 7 August 2015 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Hubble detects Exoplanet with glowing water atmosphere

Scientists have found the strongest evidence to date for a stratosphere on an enormous planet outside our solar system.


An international team of researchers, led by the University of Exeter, made the new discovery by observing glowing water molecules in the atmosphere of the exoplanet WASP-121b with NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

In order to study the gas giant’s stratosphere - a layer of atmosphere where temperature increases with higher altitudes - scientists used spectroscopy to analyse how the planet’s brightness changed at different wavelengths of light.






IIT Delhi team develops a new antibacterial drug-delivery system


7th August:

The nanoconjugates will be useful for cancer patients suffering from bacterial infections. A new antibiotic drug-delivery system that improves the efficacy of drugs thereby reducing the dosage used for treating bacterial infections has been tested in a lab by researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi.

Drug delivery becomes better and the bioavailability improves when the drug is conjugated [bound] to gold nanoparticles. So reduced dosage is sufficient to kill the bacteria. Reducing the dosage of antibiotics used is one of the strategies to reduce the possibility of drug resistance setting in.





Low-cost, sensitive CO sensor from IISc



7th August:

Indian Institute of Science researchers have developed a highly sensitive nanometre-scale carbon monoxide sensor by employing an innovative fabrication technique. It is known that carbon monoxide (CO) can have adverse effects on the health of people exposed to it. Hence, it becomes necessary to have good, low-cost carbon-monoxide sensors.

Typically, a sensor would be a thin, current carrying plate whose resistance changes on exposure to carbon monoxide. This in turn changes the value of the current flowing through it. This change when measured indicates the level of carbon monoxide in the air. Most available sensors are in the micrometer range, a nanometer-sized detector would have a higher sensitivity, but the cost of manufacturing it goes up as the size decreases. This is where the work of C.S. Prajapati and coworkers of Indian Institute of Science comes in.

CO sensor

  • The nanometer-sized sensor was made using zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanostructure on a siliconchip with tiny polystyrene beads
  • These beads were first added on the on the oxidised chip in a hexagonal close-packed structure
  • Vacuum is maintained between the silicon wafer and beads
  • When a high voltage is applied during this stage, it etches away the surfaces of the beads forms a desired uniform gap among the beads which makes ZnO is deposited on the system
  • The spaces between the beads creates a nano-mesh that can function as a nanosenor
  • The nanometre-scale Carbon Monoxide (CO) sensor is able to detect a difference in CO level as low as 500 parts per billion (ppb)
  • It can selectively respond to CO even in the presence of other gases
  • The sensor was developed using novel fabrication technique that does not involve costly and time consuming lithography technology that is used until now

 What is Carbon Monoxide (CO)?

  • CO is a colorless, odorless gas
  • It is harmful when inhaled in large amounts
  • The greatest source of CO is internal combustions (IC) engines of cars, trucks and other vehicles or machinery that burn fossil fuels
  • Breathing high concentration of CO reduces the amount of oxygen that can be transported in the blood stream to critical organs like the heart and brain.
Two new species of Cycas found




7th August:

A tree found in the Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden in West Bengal — the tree had, for years, been a puzzle to botanists and scientists — has revealed two new species of Cycas to the world. The species were named after scientists Paramjit Singh Channa and Dharmraj S. Mishra - Cycas dharmrajii.

Cycas are one of the most ancient plants whose fossils date to the Jurassic period and are often referred to as “living fossils”.


14 species found in India.

The lone Cycas pschannae found in the Botanic Garden may have been planted by the British. Cycads are very slow growing trees

Unique features

What makes the Cycas dharmrajii distinct from other Cycas found in the country is the well-defined 10 to 28 hook-like structures in the apex of the mega sporophyll (sporophyll are spore-bearing leaf-like female sex organ of the plant).

The sporophylls of Cycas pschannae are characterised by the presence of two lateral horn-like structures.

According to scientists, Cycas evolved on the earth as the first seeded plants and they grow very slowly, adding only a few centimetres every year.

Nearly 65% of Cycas are threatened but what makes the flora unique is that despite being a contemporary of the dinosaur, the genus continues to thrive.


There are over 100 species of Cycas found across the globe.
Second phase of measles-rubella vaccination drive launched in eight states

7th August:

The MR vaccine is meant for every child in 9 months to less than 15 years group, and can be administered even if they have already received it. It was started across the country under the universal immunisation programme (UIP)

Union health ministry’s campaign aims to vaccinate approximately 41 crore children against measles and rubella in a phased manner, making it the largest-ever worldwide.

Aiming to eliminate measles and curb instances of rubella by 2020, the Centre has rolled out the second phase of its measles-rubella (MR) vaccination campaign in the country.

The second phase of campaign will cover Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. Nearly 3.4 crore children will be covered in this stage.

Measles is a viral infection that can be fatal, congenital rubella syndrome is responsible for irreversible birth defects. The Union health ministry’s campaign against the two diseases intends to cover approximately 41 crore children in a phased manner, making it the largest-ever worldwide.

The first phase of the campaign was launched across five states — Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Lakshadweep and Puducherry — in February this year.


MEASLES – RUBELLA

Measles is highly contagious and spreads through coughing and sneezing of an infected person. It can also make a child vulnerable to life threatening complications such as diarrhoea, pneumonia and brain infection. Symptoms of the infection can include cataracts and deafness. It can also affect the heart and the brain.

Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. It is symptomatically similar to measles. It is generally a mild infection, but has serious consequences if infection occurs in pregnant women, causing congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). 

Rubella is usually spread through the air via coughs of people who are infected.People are infectious during the week before and after the appearance of the rash. Babies with CRS may spread the virus for more than a year.Only humans are infected. Insects do not spread the disease. Once recovered, people are immune to future infections. 

CRS is characterized by congenital anomalies in the foetus and newborns affecting the eyes (cataract, glaucoma), brain (microcephaly, mental retardation), ears (hearing loss) and heart defects.

India for expanding cooperation among Mekong Ganga countries




The MGC(Mekong Ganga Cooperation ) is an initiative by India and five ASEAN countries, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam for cooperation in tourism, culture, education, as well as transport and communications.

It was launched in 2000 at Vientiane, Laos.

MGC countries proposed to add newer areas of cooperation to the traditional areas on tourism, culture, education, transport and communication.

Established in 2000 in Vientiane, Laos, the MGC comprises six member countries through which the Ganga and Mekong rivers flow - India, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.

Mekong Ganga Cooperation (MGC)

The MGC is an initiative by India and five ASEAN countries, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam for cooperation in tourism, culture, education, as well as transport and communications.


It is named after Ganga and the Mekong which both are civilisational rivers. MGC initiative aims to facilitate closer contacts among the people inhabiting these two major river basins.

NCRB merged with BPRD


The government merged the National Crimes Records Bureau (NCRB) - which, over the years, has been the principal source of reference by policy makers, police, criminologists, researchers and media - both in India and abroad, with the Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D).

NCRB's functions under the Director General of BPR&D, who will now oversee all the data collection related to Crime in India, Accidental Deaths and Suicides, Prison Statistics and Fingerprints.

BPR&D has been given charge of NCRB so that there is more research based and methodological data collection in future as data collection by NCRB as of now was that of taken from states and sometimes inaccurate.

The merger means that the Director NCRB and all.  Its staff will now report to Meera C Borwankar, DG of BPR&D but administrative matters of both the bodies will be handled directly by home ministry itself.

NCRB

The NCRB was established in 1986 with a mandate to empower Indian police with information technology solutions and criminal intelligence to enable them to enforce the law effectively.

It also compiles data on crimes, prosecutions, traffic related prosecutions, and prisons, suicides etc and its annual report were extensively globally to present India's crime figures. The primary crime collection bureau also has the database of all the fingerprints in India and also plays a role in capacity building for government's ambitious project - Crime and Criminal Tracking Networks and Systems (CCTNS).

NCRB's data on crimes against women, particularly rapes, has shaped government's policies on safety of women in last few years, especially after December 16, 2012 Nirbhaya gangrape case.

BPRD


BPRD, which was constituted in 1966 to directly participate in police functions and suggest reforms, and NCRB will now jointly foster partnership with universities, researchers, NGOs and public to have robust data on crime, police, courts and prisons.

Assam, has been declared “disturbed” under the AFSPA


Assam, has been declared “disturbed” under the AFSPA with effect from August 3 till August 31. Areas near Meghalaya’s border areas adjoining Assam and three districts in Arunachal Pradesh have also been declared as “disturbed” under the AFSPA for two more months with effect from August 3.

It has also declared as “disturbed” under the AFSPA three districts of Arunachal Pradesh -- Tirap, Changlang and Longding - and areas falling within the jurisdiction of 14 police stations in nine other districts of the state with effect from August 4 to September 30.

The 14 police stations fall under the districts of Papumpare, West Siang, East Siang, Lower Dibang Valley, East Kameng, West Kameng, Namsai, Lohit district, Lower Subansiri in Arunachal Pradesh.

The violence were perpetrated in Assam by insurgent groups like ULFA, NDFB and others.AFSPA has been continuing in Assam since November 1990

The AFSPA has been in force in the three Arunachal Pradesh districts of Tirap, Changlang and Longding since January, 2016.

Meghalaya too has been witnessing violence by ULFA, NDFB militants in the recent past.

What is AFSPA?
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Acts (AFSPA), are Acts of the Parliament of India that grant special powers to the Indian Armed Forces in what each act terms "disturbed areas". According to The Disturbed Areas (Special Courts) Act, 1976 once declared ‘disturbed’, the area has to maintain status quo for a minimum of 3 months.
One such Act passed on September 11, 1958 was applicable to the Naga Hills, then part of Assam.
In the following decades it spread, one by one, to the other Seven Sister States in India's northeast. Another one passed in 1983 and applicable to Punjab and Chandigarh was withdrawn in 1997, roughly 14 years after it came to force. An Act passed in 1990 was applied to Jammu and Kashmir and has been in force since.
The Acts have received criticism from several sections for alleged concerns about human rights violations in the regions of its enforcement alleged to have happened.


India, Iran call for early operationalisation of Chabahar Port


India and Iran have expressed commitment for early completion and operationalisation of Chabahar Port besides strengthening bilateral ties.

Road Transport, Highways and Shipping Minister Nitin Gadkari was on a two-day visit to Tehran, discussions held about Iranian officials on wide ranging issues including Chabahar Port and proposed rail link between Chabahar and Zahedan.

What is Chabar Port ?

Chabahar Port  is a seaport in Chabahar located in southeastern Iran, on the Gulf of Oman. It serves as Iran's only oceanic port, and consists of two separate ports named Shahid Kalantari and Shahid Beheshti, each of which have five berths. 

India and Iran first agreed to plans to further develop Shahid Beheshti port in 2003, but did not do so on account of sanctions against Iran. As of 2016, the port has ten berths. In May 2016, India and Iran signed a bilateral agreement in which India would refurbish one of the berths at Shahid Beheshti port, and reconstruct a 600 meter long container handling facility at the port. The port is intended to provide an alternative for trade between India and Afghanistan. This port is 800 kilometers closer to Afghanistan than Pakistan's Karachi port. The port handled 2.1 million tons of cargo in 2015, which is planned to be upgraded to handle 8.5 million tons by 2016, and to 86 million tons in the future.